Kubernetes 架构:控制平面 - 节点通信

Table of Contents


所谓控制平面就是 Kubernetes 的 apiserver。

1. 节点到控制平面

Kubernetes 是集中式的 API 模式。来自节点的所有 API 使用(或者他们运行的 Pods)在 apiserver 处终止(其他控制平面组件都未被设计为公开远程服务)。 apiserver 配置为监听启用一种或者多种形式的客户端身份验证的安全 HTTPS 端口(通常为 443)上的远程连接。应该启用一种或者多种形式的授权, 尤其是在允许匿名请求或者服务账户令牌的情况下。

Nodes should be provisioned with the public root certificate for the cluster such that they can connect securely to the apiserver along with valid client credentials. A good approach is that the client credentials provided to the kubelet are in the form of a client certificate. See kubelet TLS bootstrapping for automated provisioning of kubelet client certificates.

Pods that wish to connect to the apiserver can do so securely by leveraging a service account so that Kubernetes will automatically inject the public root certificate and a valid bearer token into the pod when it is instantiated. The kubernetes service (in default namespace) is configured with a virtual IP address that is redirected (via kube-proxy) to the HTTPS endpoint on the apiserver.

The control plane components also communicate with the cluster apiserver over the secure port.

As a result, the default operating mode for connections from the nodes and pods running on the nodes to the control plane is secured by default and can run over untrusted and/or public networks.

2. 控制平面到节点


  1. 从 apiserver 到集群中每个节点的都运行的 kubelet 进程;
  2. 通过 apiserver 的代理功能 从 apiserver 到任何节点,pod,或者 server

2.1. apiserver 到 kubelet

从 apiserver 到 kubelet 的连接用于:

  • 获取 pods 的日志;
  • 通过 kubectl 附加到正在运行的 pods;
  • 提供 kubelet 的端口转发功能;

These connections terminate at the kubelet's HTTPS endpoint. By default, the apiserver does not verify the kubelet's serving certificate, which makes the connection subject to man-in-the-middle attacks and unsafe to run over untrusted and/or public networks.

To verify this connection, use the –kubelet-certificate-authority flag to provide the apiserver with a root certificate bundle to use to verify the kubelet's serving certificate.

If that is not possible, use SSH tunneling between the apiserver and kubelet if required to avoid connecting over an untrusted or public network.

Finally, Kubelet authentication and/or authorization should be enabled to secure the kubelet API.

2.2. apiserver 到节点,pods 和 services

The connections from the apiserver to a node, pod, or service default to plain HTTP connections and are therefore neither authenticated nor encrypted. They can be run over a secure HTTPS connection by prefixing https: to the node, pod, or service name in the API URL, but they will not validate the certificate provided by the HTTPS endpoint nor provide client credentials. So while the connection will be encrypted, it will not provide any guarantees of integrity. These connections are not currently safe to run over untrusted or public networks.

2.3. SSH 隧道(tunnels)

Kubernetes supports SSH tunnels to protect the control plane to nodes communication paths. In this configuration, the apiserver initiates an SSH tunnel to each node in the cluster (connecting to the ssh server listening on port 22) and passes all traffic destined for a kubelet, node, pod, or service through the tunnel. This tunnel ensures that the traffic is not exposed outside of the network in which the nodes are running.

SSH tunnels are currently deprecated, so you shouldn't opt to use them unless you know what you are doing. The Konnectivity service is a replacement for this communication channel.

2.4. Konnectivity service

FEATURE STATE: Kubernetes v1.18 [beta]

As a replacement to the SSH tunnels, the Konnectivity service provides TCP level proxy for the control plane to cluster communication. The Konnectivity service consists of two parts: the Konnectivity server in the control plane network and the Konnectivity agents in the nodes network. The Konnectivity agents initiate connections to the Konnectivity server and maintain the network connections. After enabling the Konnectivity service, all control plane to nodes traffic goes through these connections.

Follow the Konnectivity service task to set up the Konnectivity service in your cluster.

First created: 2021-03-23 18:03:02
Last updated: 2022-12-11 Sun 12:49
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